On this day

In 1409, the critical conflict within the Roman Catholic Church generated a second schism when the Ecumenical Council of Pisa elected Pope Alexander V. The new Pope joined Pope Benedict XIII and Pope Gregory XII as the putative leaders of the Church. The Ecumenical Council of Constance eventually resolved the schisms and elected Pope Martin V.

In 1848, the June Days Uprising against France's Second Republic came to an end when last barricade at Faubourg Saint-Antoine fell.

In 1908, Salvador Allende was born in Chile. A lifelong socialist, Allende became Chile's President in 1970. He was deposed by a coup d'état conducted by the Chilean military on September 11, 1973. The United States, led by President Richard Nixon, supported the coup.

In 1945, delegates from every one of the original member countries (sans Poland) signed the United Nations Charter in San Francisco. Poland signed later.

In 1953, members of the Politburo of the Soviet Union had Lavrentiy Beria, Stalin's "Himmler" and, perhaps, his murderer, arrested. Beria led the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) at the time of his arrest.

In 1975, India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared under which she could rule by decree.

In 1975, a member of the American Indian Movement and two FBI agents died during the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation shootout. Leonard Peltier, a member of AIM, was convicted of murder in the deaths of the FBI agents. Today, however, evidence exists which suggests that Peltier did not kill the FBI agents and that he was unfairly tried and convicted.

In 2003, Strom Thurmond, a segregationist politician from South Carolina, died.

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