In 1860, the composer and conductor Gustav Mahler was born in Kaliště, Čechy or Bohemia.
In 1863, the United States instituted its first military draft.
In 1887, the celebrated Russian-French-Jewish painter Marc Chagall was born in Vitebsk, Belarus.
In 1892, militants in the Philippines formed the Revolutionary Philippine Brotherhood in order to resist Spain's Asian Empire.
In 1898, President William McKinley signed the Newlands Resolution. The Resolution formally annexed Hawaii, making the island chain a territory of the United States.
In 1932, the jazz pianist and composer Joe Zawinul was born in Landstraße, Vienna, Austria. Although Zawinul played in many styles belonging to his genre, he is mostly remembered today for his work with the jazz-fusion band Weather Report, which he co-founded with the saxophonist and composer Wayne Shorter.
In 1940, the drummer, composer and actor Ringo Starr was born in Liverpool, England.
In 1953, the Argentinean revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara embarked on his third Latin American tour.
In 1973, the German philosopher, social critic and political refugee Max Horkheimer died in Nuremberg, West Germany. He published his most important work, Dialektik der Aufklärung (The Dialectic of Enlightenment), with Theodor Adorno while both were living in exile in the United States.