On this day

In 1687, Isaac Newton published the first edition of his seminal work, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).

In 1811, Venezuela declared its independence from Spain.

In 1830, France invaded Algeria.

In 1910, the sociologist Robert K. Merton was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

In 1934, during the 1934 West Coast Longshoreman's Strike, the San Francisco police, in an attempt to suppress labor action, opened fire on the strikers in what became known as Bloody Thursday. This led to a call for a local general strike by the San Francisco Labor Council and its member unions. San Francisco's Mayor responded by declaring a state of emergency. The strike concluded with the Labor Council choosing to go to arbitration on all disputed issues. The striking seamen chose to continue their strike, and their decision prompted government authorities to red-bait the strikers and their sympathizers, collude with vigilantes and agents of the employers and suppress the strike with violence.

In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the National Labor Relations Act.

In 1943, the guitarist and songwriter Robbie Robertson was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Robertson made his mark as the chief songwriter for the musical group The Band.

In 1950, Israel's Knesset passed the famous Law of Return. The law gave Jews and their non-Jewish spouses the right to immigrate into Israel and apply for citizenship.

In 1958, the cartoonist Bill Watterson was born in Washington, DC. Watterson gained his fame by writing and drawing the intelligent and influential Calvin and Hobbes comic strip.

In 1962, Algeria gained its independence from France.

In 1969, Walter Gropius, a master architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, died in Boston, Massachusetts.

In 1971, President Richard Nixon formally certified the Twenty-Sixth Amendment which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

In 1989, Oliver North was given a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service for his actions in the Iran-Contra Affair.

In 1991, the political activist and political prisoner Nelson Mandela became the President of the African National Congress. The electors voted unanimously for Mandela.

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